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Le Root Extracellular Trap (RET), un réseau au coeur de la défense racinaire : Caractérisation moléculaire et fonctionnelle chez deux légumineuses, Glycine max (Merr.) L. et Pisum sativum (L.).

Abstract : In higher plants, the RET (Root Extracellular Trap) is a complex made up of border cells and secretions, released by root tips and believed to play a central role in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. This structure is quite similar to the Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) known as one of the first lines of defense in mammals, able to trap and kill microbial pathogens. RET secretions consist of high and low-molecular weight compounds including cell wall polysaccharides, proteoglycans and secondary metabolites. They also contain a variety of anti-microbial proteins and extracellular DNA much like the NET. During my thesis work, we investigated the release and morphology of root border cells in soybean (Glycine max (Merr) L.) using light and scanning electron microscopy. The molecular composition of the mucilage was also investigated using immunocytochemistry, anti-cell wall glycan antibodies and confocal microscopy. Immunocytochemistry was also applied to pea (Pisum sativum L.) border cells and secretions to examine the occurrence of specific polysaccharides. We also studied the impact of soybean RET on the soilborne pathogens, Phytophthora parasitica and Aphanomyces euteiches. Our findings showed that root tips of soybean released three border cell morphotypes all of which secreted substantial amounts of mucilage. Immunocytochemical data showed that mucilage was enriched in pectin and the two hemicellulosic polysaccharides xyloglucan and heteromannan. Mucilage also contained cellulose, histone and extracellular DNA. Interestingly, the structural polysaccharides formed a fibrous network surrounding the cells and holding them together, supporting their role in maintaining mucilage architecture and integrity. In addition, we found that xyloglucan and cellulose were also secreted into the mucilage of pea, connecting border cells together. Finally, our findings revealed that RET prevented P. parasitica zoospores from colonizing soybean root tip, by stopping their penetration and inducing their death. Overall the study revealed novel insights into the composition, structure and function of plant RETs. Currently, the RET is much less studied than its mammal counterpart, the NET, but structural and functional similarities exist between these two traps. Interestingly, similarities do also exist between the RET and other important biological complexes, including bacterial biofilms and seed mucilage, that deserve to be further investigated and compared in the context of immunity.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 3, 2019 - 11:13:29 AM
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Marc Ropitaux. Le Root Extracellular Trap (RET), un réseau au coeur de la défense racinaire : Caractérisation moléculaire et fonctionnelle chez deux légumineuses, Glycine max (Merr.) L. et Pisum sativum (L.).. Amélioration des plantes. Université de Rouen Normandie, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02304391⟩

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