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Morphodynamique et transferts sédimentaires au sein d'une baie mégatidale en comblement (Baie de Somme, Manche Est). Stratégie multi-échelles spatio-temporelles

Abstract : The Baie de Somme is an infilling estuarine environment, controlled by intensive marine hydrodynamics forcing (megatidal tide and waves) and a small river flow. Morpho-sedimentary dynamics of this bay and sedimentary fluxes were studied at two spatial and temporal scales. I) At the scale of intertidal hydraulic dunes, studied during semi-diurnal and semi-lunar tidal cycles with neap tides (NT) and spring tides (ST). In this context, a strong forcing variability (winds, tide, waves) control sedimentary fluxes and morphodynamics evolutions of dunes (λ : 5-23 m ; H : 20-60 cm). These fluxes generally increase with tide and waves, inducing a net sediment transport to the east or west, according to the predominance of current (flood/ebb), which depends on the characteristics of wind and waves. Low tide morphology of dunes depends on hydrodynamic conditions and sediment transport : asymmetry eastwards under a threshold water depth of 2,64 to 2,73 m. ; asymmetry westwards above this threshold, during quiet or agitated tide (Hs max < 1,5 m) ; sub-symmetry and flattening dunes during very agitated ST ( Hs max ≥ 1,83 m) ; asymmetry eastwards during a storming ST. Migration of dunes crests is more intense during ST than during NT and is not always in accordance with net sediment transport directions. It is due to significant variations in dunes morphology and polarity. During a semi-lunar tide cycle with waves, net sediment transport and dunes migrations are in direction of internal area of the bay (eastward). II) At the scale of the bay, studied to seasonal, annual and multiannual time steps, infilling dynamics is significant. Superficial sedimentary cover of the bay, observed in 2013, show a filtering gradient of sediment « offshore-coast » and « central axis-shoreline », with internal borders characterized by an increase in muds and carbonates rates between 1980 and 2013. At recent historical scale (1947-2011), orthophotos show a strong progress of coastal barriers (sand dunes at north and pebbles at south) and salt meadow (up to 23,7 m/year). Tidal flat is characterized by large variations in the distribution of sandy bars and dune fields, as well as by strong divagations of tidal channels. Between 2011 and 2013, sedimentary budgets show erosion of south external zones, close to the front delta ebb (low altitude), and deposition in areas located in front of the pointe du Hourdel (mean altitude). At contrary, internal zones of the bay (high altitude) are quite stable, because at the end of infilling or already filled. Very dynamic north external parts still have a low sediment budget to suggest that this sector is in dynamic equilibrium, perhaps as a result of sandy transfers with the coastline. These two spatial and temporal approaches confirm the trend of infilling of the Baie de Somme, under the effect of marine sand transport in the internal areas, during short time steps at the fine scale of dune fields, as during long time steps at the global scale of the bay, and allow to propose appropriate monitoring strategies.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 27, 2018 - 2:49:39 PM
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Charlotte Michel. Morphodynamique et transferts sédimentaires au sein d'une baie mégatidale en comblement (Baie de Somme, Manche Est). Stratégie multi-échelles spatio-temporelles. Géomorphologie. Normandie Université, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ROUES045⟩. ⟨tel-01936610⟩



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