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Conference papers

“Productive Appropriations” Of Tools And Plans For Individualized Learning: Transatlantic Cultural Transfers In The Early 20th Century

Abstract : While at the beginning of the 20th century the teaching as a simultaneous lecture organized "in curriculum grades" (Perrenoud, 2010, p. 103) had become the dominant form, in a context in which 14 the instruction of all was a major and shared concern, some pedagogues considered the need to take every individual into account. Thus, in the progressive and new education movement especially, the first tools and plans for individualized learning emerged in an attempt to take into account individuals' specificities within the classroom. Among the pedagogical proposals that “challenged the structures and rules that constitute the grammar of schooling” – understood as “the organizational framework that shapes the conditions under which teachers instruct students” (Tyack & Tobin, 1994, p. 455) –, Tyack & Tobin (1994) cite Helen Parkhurst's Dalton Plan. Indeed, according to the authors, “Parkhurst challenged essential components of the graded school in which teachers sought to instruct pupils en massein the prescribed curriculum.” (p.463). The laboratory plan and assignments designed by Helen Parkhurst as well as the self-correcting individual work files developed by Carleton W. Washburne are two American examples of these pedagogical attempts that quickly found echoes in Europe (Vergnon, 2020, forthcoming). As a counterpoint to the construction of a new dominant norm of "school form" and its variations in an international circulation of ideas and practices, an equally international reflection has grown on how to take everyone into consideration beyond the instruction of all. Why and how did these proposals originate in the United States? What were the vectors of their diffusion towards Europe? What interest did European educationists find in them with regard to their own problems and contexts of exercise? How did they appropriate them? These questions will guide our study of some of the "productive appropriation[s]" (Lüsebrink, 2003) to which these pedagogical proposals from the United States have given rise in Europe in this "dynamic of resemantisation" (Espagne, 2013).
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Contributor : Marie Vergnon Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, June 4, 2021 - 2:38:31 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 14, 2022 - 3:43:53 PM


  • HAL Id : hal-03250037, version 1


Marie Vergnon. “Productive Appropriations” Of Tools And Plans For Individualized Learning: Transatlantic Cultural Transfers In The Early 20th Century. ISCHE 2021 - Looking from Above and Below: Rethinking the Social in the History of Education, Jun 2021, Örebro, Sweden. ⟨hal-03250037⟩



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