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Рюриково городище, Ярославово дворище и Великий Новгород [Ryurik Gorodishche, Yaroslavovo Dvorishche and Novgorod the Great]

Abstract : This paper presents a review of E. N. Nosov’s notions on the origins and early history of Novgorod, Princely Court and Gorodishche; new hypotheses in this sphere are critically evaluated. The historical memory preserved in the Chronicle about Slavic settlement at Gorodishche prior to the appearance of the hillfort of Rurik, the first Novgorod, in the third quarter of the 9th century is confirmed. The history of different areas of Gorodishche is argued. The observations are based on the correlation between the hand-made and turned pottery and dendrochronology of wooden elements came from the excavation of workshop and living structures and wood-clay bread ovens. Hypotheses are proposed concerning the synchronization of early history of Gorodishche and Novgorod. The decrease of Gorodishche in the 890-920s corresponds to the emergence of the earliest settlements at Torgovaya Side in Novgorod at Slavno (Kholm) and Dvorishche hills. It is exactly in this period that the toponym Kholmgrad can have appeared here. The revival of Gorodishche in the 930-950s is synchronous to the emergence of settlements at Sofiyskaya Side at Northen and Southern kremlin hills and on the territories of Lyudin and Nerevsky Ends. The appearance of the Princely Court near Torg (Market or trade area) is dated to the 970s and corresponds to the new decline of Gorodishche in the third quarter – the end of the 10th century. Its decline was reflected to the breakdown of bread ovens served for the princely retinue. Simultaneously, the prince’s jurisdiction covers the Kremlin hills where a common urban religious centre arises. The bridge over the Volkhov and Slavenskaya Street as a part of the way to Gorodishche built at this time united the proto-urban settlements into the town of Novgorod. The construction of the Detinets (kremlin) in the 11th century around the Episcopal residence as a centre of new town in the Eastern Europe, completed the formation of the urban settlement. At the end of the 11th century the princely residence was transferred from the Torg to Gorodishche. Here it is highlighted that the hypotheses proposed by E. N. Nosov concerning the origins of Gorodishche and Novgorod and social and historical correlation between two settlements have generally stood the test of time.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 18, 2021 - 11:22:02 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, March 20, 2021 - 3:24:01 AM
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Aleksandr Musin. Рюриково городище, Ярославово дворище и Великий Новгород [Ryurik Gorodishche, Yaroslavovo Dvorishche and Novgorod the Great]. Archaeological News of the Institute of History of Material Culture RAS, Saint-Petersburg., 2020, 28, pp.45-75. ⟨10.31600/1817-6976-2020-28-45-75⟩. ⟨hal-03174149⟩



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