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Cytokine Concentrations in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Horses with Neutrophilic Inflammatory Airway Disease

Abstract : Background: Multiple cytological patterns occur in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of horses with inflammatory airway disease (IAD). Only few data on BALF cytokine profiles are available for horses with IAD, and are limited to mRNA expression. Hypothesis/objective: Cytological profiles of IAD are associated with different BALF immunological pathways. To investigate BALF cytokine concentrations in a large number of horses with neutrophilic IAD. Animals: One hundred and thirty-eight client-owned Standardbred racehorses in active training. Methods: Prospective observational study. BALF samples were obtained from left and right lungs. Interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results: Fourteen horses had normal BALF cytological profiles and 56 exhibited evidence of bilateral neutrophilic IAD. Twenty-four horses showed BALF with, respectively, IAD- and CTL consistent cytology and were excluded; as were 44 horses because of evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage. TNF-α (56 ± 115 pg/mL; P = .034) and IFN-γ concentrations (104 ± 247 pg/mL; P = .044) were significantly higher for IAD horses, compared with controls (respectively 19 ± 41 and 80 ± 116 pg/mL). Horses with 'neutrophil' subtype had significantly higher IFN-γ concentrations (110 ± 154 pg/mL), than 'neutrophil/metachromatic' (56 ± 54 pg/mL; P = .028) and 'neutrophil/metachromatic/eosinophil' subtypes (44 ± 23 pg/mL; P = .012). Conclusions and clinical importance: Cytokine concentrations in BALF suggested that neutrophilic IAD is associated with activation of the innate immune system and a possible T-helper (Th)-1 polarized response. This study also suggested that immunological pathways vary according to cytological IAD subtypes.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 28, 2020 - 12:06:35 PM
Last modification on : Monday, October 12, 2020 - 3:22:01 PM

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Eric Richard, Marianne Depecker, Myriam Desfontis, Claire Leleu, Guillaume Fortier, et al.. Cytokine Concentrations in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Horses with Neutrophilic Inflammatory Airway Disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Wiley, 2014, 28 (6), pp.1838-1844. ⟨10.1111/jvim.12464⟩. ⟨hal-02950808⟩

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