H. Abdelgawad, D. Peshev, G. Zinta, W. Van-den-ende, I. A. Janssens et al., Climate extreme effects on the chemical composition of temperate grassland species under ambient and elevated CO 2 : a comparison of fructan and non-fructan accumulators, PLos One, vol.9, 2014.

S. W. Abeynayake, T. P. Etzerodt, K. Jonavi?ien?, S. Byrne, T. Asp et al.,

K. R. Albert, T. N. Mikkelsen, A. Michelsen, H. Ro-poulsen, and L. Van-der-linden, Interactive effects of drought, elevated CO 2 and warming on photosynthetic capacity and photosystem performance in temperate heath plants, Journal of Plant Physiology, vol.168, pp.1550-1561, 2011.

K. R. Albert, H. Ro-poulsen, T. N. Mikkelsen, A. Michelsen, L. Van-der-linden et al., Effects of elevated CO?, warming and drought episodes on plant carbon uptake in a temperate heath ecosystem are controlled by soil water status, Plant, Cell & Environment, vol.34, pp.1207-1222, 2011.

A. A. Ali, B. E. Medlyn, K. Y. Crous, and P. B. Reich, A trait-based ecosystem model suggests that long-term responsiveness to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration is greater in slow-growing than fast-growing plants, Functional Ecology, vol.27, pp.1011-1022, 2013.

V. Allard, P. Newton, M. Lieffering, H. Clark, C. Matthew et al., Nitrogen cycling in grazed pastures at elevated CO 2 : N returns by ruminants, Global Change Biology, vol.9, pp.1731-1742, 2003.

V. Amiard, A. Morvan-bertrand, J. P. Billard, C. Huault, F. Keller et al., Fructans, but not the sucrosyl-galactosides, raffinose and loliose, are affected by drought stress in perennial ryegrass, Plant Physiology, vol.132, pp.2218-2229, 2003.

W. Amiard, A. Morvan-bertrand, J. B. Cliquet, J. P. Billard, C. Huault et al., Carbohydrate and amino acid composition in phloem sap of Lolium perenne L. before and after defoliation, Canadian Journal of Botany, vol.82, pp.1594-1601, 2004.

G. D. Bonnett, I. M. Sims, R. J. Simpson, and A. J. Cairns, Structural diversity of fructan in relation to the taxonomy of the Poaceae, New Phytologist, vol.136, pp.11-17, 1997.

M. Carlsson, M. Merten, M. Kayser, J. Isselstein, and N. Wrage-monnig, Drought stress resistance and resilience of permanent grasslands are shaped by functional group composition and N fertilization, Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, vol.236, pp.52-60, 2017.

E. Casella and J. F. Soussana, Long-term effects of CO 2 enrichment and temperature increase on the carbon balance of a temperate grass sward, Journal of Experimental Botany, vol.48, pp.1309-1321, 1997.

N. J. Chatterton, P. A. Harrison, W. R. Thornley, and J. H. Bennett, Structures of fructan oligomers in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), Journal of Plant Physiology, vol.142, pp.552-556, 1993.

P. Ciais, M. Reichstein, and N. Viovy, Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003, Nature, vol.437, pp.529-533, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00373792

H. Clark, P. Newton, and D. J. Barker, Physiological and morphological responses to elevated CO 2 and a soil moisture deficit of temperate pasture species growing in an established plant community, Journal of Experimental Botany, vol.50, pp.233-242, 1999.

J. M. Craine, T. W. Ocheltree, J. B. Nippert, E. G. Towne, A. M. Skibbe et al., Global diversity of drought tolerance and grassland climate-change resilience, Nature Climate Change, vol.3, pp.63-67, 2013.

A. G. Dai, Drought under global warming: a review, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, vol.2, pp.45-65, 2011.

D. Boeck, H. J. Bloor, J. Kreyling, J. Ransijn, J. Nijs et al., Patterns and drivers of biodiversity-stability relationships under climate extremes, Journal of Ecology, vol.106, pp.890-902, 2018.

R. A. Demel, E. Dorrepaal, M. J. Ebskamp, J. C. Smeekens, and B. De-kruijff, Fructans interact strongly with model membranes, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol.1375, pp.36-42, 1998.

W. I. Dieleman, S. Vicca, and F. A. Dijkstra, Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO 2 and temperature, Global Change Biology, vol.18, pp.2681-2693, 2012.

B. G. Drake, M. A. Gonzalez-meler, and S. P. Long, More efficient plants: a consequence of rising atmospheric CO 2 ?, Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, vol.48, pp.609-639, 1997.

J. S. Dukes, Tomorrow's plant communities: different, but how, New Phytologist, vol.176, pp.235-237, 2007.

B. Dumont, D. Andueza, V. Niderkorn, A. Lüscher, C. Porqueddu et al., A meta-analysis of climate change effects on forage quality in grasslands: specificities of mountain and Mediterranean areas, Grass and Forage Science, vol.70, pp.239-254, 2015.

A. J. Felton and M. D. Smith, Integrating plant ecological responses to climate extremes from individual to ecosystem levels, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.372, p.12, 2017.

R. J. Fernandez, M. B. Wang, and J. F. Reynolds, Do morphological changes mediate plant responses to water stress? A steady-state experiment with two C 4 grasses, New Phytologist, vol.155, pp.79-88, 2002.

E. Gaujour, B. Amiaud, C. Mignolet, and S. Plantureux, Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity in permanent grasslands. A review, Agronomy for Sustainable Development, vol.32, pp.133-160, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00930482

O. Ghannoum, V. Caemmerer, S. Ziska, L. H. Conroy, and J. P. , The growth response of C 4 plants to rising atmospheric CO 2 partial pressure: a reassessment, Plant Cell and Environment, vol.23, pp.931-942, 2000.

K. Grant, J. Kreyling, H. Heilmeier, C. Beierkuhnlein, and A. Jentsch, Extreme weather events and plant-plant interactions: shifts between competition and facilitation among grassland species in the face of drought and heavy rainfall, Ecological Research, vol.29, pp.991-1001, 2014.

H. Harmens, C. M. Stirling, C. Marshall, and J. F. Farrar, Does downregulation of photosynthetic capacity by elevated CO 2 depend on N supply in Dactylis glomerata?, Physiologia Plantarum, vol.108, pp.43-50, 2000.

D. Hincha, D. Livingston, R. Premakumar, H. Zuther, N. Obel et al., Fructans from oat and rye: composition and effects on membrane stability during drying, Biochimica and Biophysica Acta, vol.1768, pp.1611-1619, 2007.

A. F. Hof, C. W. Hope, J. Lowe, M. D. Mastrandrea, M. Meinshausen et al., The benefits of climate change mitigation in integrated assessment models: the role of the carbon cycle and climate component, Climatic Change, vol.113, pp.897-917, 2012.

J. Holtum and K. Winter, Elevated CO 2 and forest vegetation: more a water issue than a carbon issue?, Functional Plant Biology, vol.37, pp.694-702, 2010.

D. L. Hoover, A. K. Knapp, and M. D. Smith, Resistance and resilience of a grassland ecosystem to climate extremes, Ecology, vol.95, pp.2646-2656, 2014.

J. Hou, X. Huang, W. Sun, C. Du, C. Wang et al., Accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates and gene expression in wheat stems correlates with drought resistance, Journal of Plant Physiology, vol.231, pp.182-191, 2018.

J. Ingrisch and M. Bahn, Towards a comparable quantification of resilience, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.33, pp.251-259, 2018.

, Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, 2014.

N. M. Itaya, M. S. Buckeridge, and R. Figueiredo-ribeiro, Biosynthesis in vitro of high-molecular-mass fructan by cell-free extracts from tuberous roots of Viguiera discolor (Asteraceae), New Phytologist, vol.136, pp.53-60, 1997.

M. Joudi, A. Ahmadi, V. Mohamadi, A. Abbasi, R. Vergauwen et al., Comparison of fructan dynamics in two wheat cultivars with different capacities of accumulation and remobilization under drought stress, Physiologia Plantarum, vol.144, pp.1-12, 2012.

P. A. Knapp, P. T. Soule, and G. Hd, , 2001.

C. Korner, Biosphere responses to CO 2 enrichment, Ecological Applications, vol.10, pp.1590-1619, 2000.

T. D. Lee, S. H. Barrott, and P. B. Reich, Photosynthetic responses of 13 grassland species across 11 years of free-air CO 2 enrichment is modest, consistent and independent of N supply, Global Change Biology, vol.17, pp.2893-2904, 2011.

D. P. Livingston, D. K. Hincha, and A. G. Heyer, Fructan and its relationship to abiotic stress tolerance in plants, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol.66, pp.2007-2023, 2009.

F. T. Maestre, J. L. Quero, F. Valladares, and J. F. Reynolds, Individual vs. population plastic responses to elevated CO 2 , nutrient availability, and heterogeneity: a microcosm experiment with co-occurring species, Plant and Soil, vol.296, pp.53-64, 2007.

S. P. Marx, J. Nosberger, and M. Frehner, Hydrolysis of fructan in grasses: A ?-(2-6)-linkage specific fructan-?-fructosidase from stubble of Lolium perenne, New Phytologist, vol.135, pp.279-290, 1997.

R. Morelli, S. Russo-volpe, N. Bruno, L. Scalzo, and R. , Fentondependent damage to carbohydrates: free radical scavenging activity of some simple sugars, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.51, pp.7418-7425, 2003.

J. Morgan, D. Lecain, A. Mosier, and D. Milchunas, , vol.2, 2001.

J. A. Morgan, D. R. Lecain, E. Pendall, D. M. Blumenthal, B. A. Kimball et al., , 2011.

J. A. Morgan, D. E. Pataki, and C. Körner, Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO 2, Oecologia, vol.140, pp.11-25, 2004.

K. E. Mueller, D. M. Blumenthal, E. Pendall, Y. Carrillo, F. A. Dijkstra et al., Impacts of warming and elevated CO 2 on a semi-arid grassland are non-additive, shift with precipitation, and reverse over time, Ecology Letters, vol.19, pp.956-966, 2016.

K. Naudts, J. Van-den-berge, I. A. Janssens, I. Nijs, and R. Ceulemans, , 2013.

P. Newton, H. Clark, C. C. Bell, and E. M. Glasgow,

D. G. Nimmo, M. Nally, R. Cunningham, S. C. Haslem, A. Bennett et al.,

, Vive la résistance: reviving resistance for 21st century conservation, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.30, pp.516-523

S. L. Niu, Y. Q. Luo, D. J. Li, S. H. Cao, J. Y. Xia et al., Plant growth and mortality under climatic extremes: an overview, Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.98, pp.13-19, 2014.

B. Orlowsky and S. I. Seneviratne, Global changes in extreme events: regional and seasonal dimension, Climatic Change, vol.110, pp.669-696, 2012.

L. Pagès and C. Picon-cochard, Modelling the root system architecture of Poaceae. Can we simulate integrated traits from morphological parameters of growth and branching, New Phytologist, vol.204, pp.149-158, 2014.

E. Pendall, A. R. Mosier, and J. A. Morgan, Rhizodeposition stimulated by elevated CO 2 in a semiarid grassland, New Phytologist, vol.162, pp.447-458, 2004.

I. M. Pérez-ramos, F. Volaire, M. Fattet, A. Blanchard, and C. Roumet, Tradeoffs between functional strategies for resource-use and drought-survival in Mediterranean rangeland species, Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.87, pp.126-136, 2013.

D. Peshev, R. Vergauwen, A. Moglia, E. Hideg, and W. Van-den-ende, Towards understanding vacuolar antioxidant mechanisms: a role for fructans?, Journal of Experimental Botany, vol.64, pp.1025-1038, 2013.

E. S. Pilgrim, C. Macleod, and M. Blackwell, Interactions among agricultural production and other ecosystem services delivered from European temperate grassland systems, Advances in agronomy, vol.109, pp.117-154, 2010.

P. B. Reich, S. E. Hobbie, and T. D. Lee, Plant growth enhancement by elevated CO 2 eliminated by joint water and nitrogen limitation, Nature Geoscience, vol.7, pp.920-924, 2014.

P. B. Reich, D. Tilman, and J. Craine, Do species and functional groups differ in acquisition and use of C, N and water under varying atmospheric CO 2 and N availability regimes? A field test with 16 grassland species, New Phytologist, vol.150, pp.435-448, 2001.

C. P. Reyer, S. Leuzinger, and A. Rammig, A plant's perspective of extremes: terrestrial plant responses to changing climatic variability, Global Change Biology, vol.19, pp.75-89, 2013.

A. Robredo, U. Perez-lopez, H. S. De-la-maza, B. Gonzalez-moro, M. Lacuesta et al., Elevated CO 2 alleviates the impact of drought on barley improving water status by lowering stomatal conductance and delaying its effects on photosynthesis, Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.59, pp.252-263, 2007.

A. Robredo, U. Perez-lopez, J. Miranda-apodaca, M. Lacuesta, A. Mena-petite et al., Elevated CO 2 reduces the drought effect on nitrogen metabolism in barley plants during drought and subsequent recovery, Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.71, pp.399-408, 2011.

C. Roumet, G. Laurent, G. Canivenc, and J. Roy, Genotypic variation in the response of two perennial grass species to elevated carbon dioxide, Oecologia, vol.133, pp.342-348, 2002.

J. Roy, C. Picon-cochard, and A. Augusti, Elevated CO 2 maintains grassland net carbon uptake under a future heat and drought extreme, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.113, pp.6224-6229, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02127043

R. Team, RStudio: Integrated development for R, 2015.

S. I. Seneviratne, M. G. Donat, B. Mueller, and L. V. Alexander, No pause in the increase of hot temperature extremes, Nature Climate Change, vol.4, pp.161-163, 2014.

M. D. Smith, An ecological perspective on extreme climatic events: a synthetic definition and framework to guide future research, Journal of Ecology, vol.99, pp.656-663, 2011.

M. D. Smith, The ecological role of climate extremes: current understanding and future prospects, Journal of Ecology, vol.99, pp.651-655, 2011.

F. Teyssonneyre, C. Picon-cochard, R. Falcimagne, and J. Soussana, Effects of elevated CO 2 and cutting frequency on plant community structure in a temperate grassland, Global Change Biology, vol.8, pp.1034-1046, 2002.

F. Teyssonneyre, C. Picon-cochard, and J. F. Soussana, How can we predict the effects of elevated CO 2 on the balance between perennial C 3 grass species competing for light?, New Phytologist, vol.154, pp.53-64, 2002.

M. Trnka, J. E. Olesen, and K. C. Kersebaum, Agroclimatic conditions in Europe under climate change, Global Change Biology, vol.17, pp.2298-2318, 2011.

F. N. Tubiello, J. F. Soussana, and S. M. Howden, Crop and pasture response to climate change, by INRAE Institut National de Recherche pour l'Agriculture, l'Alimentation et l'Environnement user on, vol.104, 2007.

W. Van-den-ende, A. Mintiens, H. Speleers, A. A. Onuoha, and A. Van-laere, The metabolism of fructans in roots of Cichorium intybus during growth, storage and forcing, New Phytologist, vol.132, pp.555-563, 1996.

R. Vergauwen, A. Van-laere, and W. Van-den-ende, Properties of fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases from chicory and globe thistle, two Asteracean plants storing greatly different types of inulin, Plant Physiology, vol.133, pp.391-401, 2003.

I. Vijn and S. Smeekens, Fructan: more than a reserve carbohydrate?, Plant Physiology, vol.120, pp.351-359, 1999.

F. Volaire, Growth, carbohydrate reserves and drought survival strategies of contrasting Dactylis glomerata populations in a Mediterranean environment, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.32, pp.56-66, 1995.

F. Volaire, A unified framework for plant drought adaptive strategies: across scales and disciplines, Global Change Biology, vol.24, pp.2929-2938, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01832285

F. Volaire, K. Barkaoui, and M. Norton, Designing resilient and sustainable grasslands for a drier future: adaptive strategies, functional traits and biotic interactions, European Journal of Agronomy, vol.52, pp.81-89, 2014.

F. Volaire and M. Norton, Summer dormancy in perennial temperate grasses, Annals of Botany, vol.98, pp.927-933, 2006.

F. Volaire and H. Thomas, Effects of drought on water relations, mineral uptake, water-soluble carbohydrates accumulation and survival of 2 contrasting populations of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.), Annals of Botany, vol.75, pp.513-524, 1995.

M. Volk, P. A. Niklaus, and C. Körner, Soil moisture effects determine CO 2 responses of grassland species, Oecologia, vol.125, pp.380-388, 2000.

D. Wang, S. A. Heckathorn, X. Wang, and S. M. Philpott, , 2012.

D. A. Way, Will rising CO 2 and temperatures exacerbate the vulnerability of trees to drought?, Tree Physiology, vol.33, pp.775-778, 2013.

S. D. Wullschleger, T. J. Tschaplinski, and R. J. Norby, Plant water relations at elevated CO 2 -implications for water-limited environments, Plant, Cell & Environment, vol.25, pp.319-331, 2002.

J. Zhang, Y. Xu, W. Chen, B. Dell, R. Vergauwen et al., A wheat 1-FEH w3 variant underlies enzyme activity for stem WSC remobilization to grain under drought, New Phytologist, vol.205, pp.293-305, 2015.

G. Zinta, H. Abdelgawad, M. A. Domagalska, L. Vergauwen, D. Knapen et al., Physiological, biochemical, and genome-wide transcriptional analysis reveals that elevated CO 2 mitigates the impact of combined heat wave and drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana at multiple organizational levels, Global Change Biology, vol.20, pp.3670-3685, 2014.

L. H. Ziska and J. A. Bunce, Increasing growth temperature reduces the stimulatory effect of elevated CO 2 on photosynthesis or biomass in two perennial species, Physiologia Plantarum, vol.91, pp.183-190, 1994.

M. Zwicke, G. A. Alessio, L. Thiery, R. Falcimagne, R. Baumont et al., Lasting effects of climate disturbance on perennial grassland above-ground biomass production under two cutting frequencies, Global Change Biology, vol.19, pp.3435-3448, 2013.

M. Zwicke, C. Picon-cochard, A. Morvan-bertrand, M. P. Prud'homme, and F. Volaire, What functional strategies drive drought survival and recovery of perennial species from upland grassland?, Annals of Botany, vol.116, pp.1001-1015, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02183531