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Mosaic PTEN alteration in the neural crest during embryogenesis results in multiple nervous system hamartomas

Abstract : The contribution of mosaic alterations to tumors of the nervous system and to non-malignant neurological diseases has been unmasked thanks to the development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies. We report here the case of a young patient without any remarkable familial medical history who was first referred at 7 years of age, for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of Asperger type, not associated with macrocephaly. The patient subsequently presented at 10 years of age with multiple nodular lesions located within the trigeminal, facial and acoustic nerve ganglia and at the L3 level. Histological examination of this latter lesion revealed a glioneuronal hamartoma, exhibiting heterogeneous PTEN immunoreactivity, astrocyte and endothelial cell nuclei expressing PTEN, but not ganglion cells. NGS performed on the hamartoma allowed the detection of a PTEN pathogenic variant in 30% of the reads. The presence of this variant in the DNA extracted from blood and buccal swabs in 3.5 and 11% of the NGS reads, respectively, confirmed the mosaic state of the PTEN variant. The anatomical distribution of the lesions suggests that the mutational event affecting PTEN occurred in neural crest progenitors, thus explaining the absence of macrocephaly. This report shows that mosaic alteration of PTEN may result in multiple central and peripheral nervous system hamartomas and that the presence of such alteration should be considered in patients with multiple nervous system masses, even in the absence of cardinal features of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, especially macrocephaly.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 27, 2020 - 12:07:31 PM
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Alice Goldenberg, Florent Marguet, Vianney Gilard, Aude-Marie Cardine, Adnan Hassani, et al.. Mosaic PTEN alteration in the neural crest during embryogenesis results in multiple nervous system hamartomas. Acta Neuropathologica Communications, BioMed Central part of Springer Science, 2019, 7 (1), pp.191. ⟨10.1186/s40478-019-0841-0⟩. ⟨hal-02538271⟩

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