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Éthanol : pharmacocinétique, métabolisme et méthodes analytiques

Abstract : Alcohol is a licit substance whose significant consumption is responsible for a major public health problem. Every year, a large number of deaths are related to its consumption. It is also involved in various accidents, on the road, at work, as well as during acts of violence. Ethanol absorption and its fate are detailed. It is mainly absorbed in the small intestine. It accompanies the movements of the water, so it diffuses in all the tissues uniformly with the exception of bones and fat. The major route of ethanol detoxification is located into the liver. Detoxification is a saturable two-step oxidation. During the first stage ethanol is oxidized into acetaldehyde, under the action of alcohol dehydrogenase. During the second stage acetaldehyde is oxidized into acetate. Genetic factors or some drugs are able to disturb the absorption and the metabolism of ethanol. The analytical methods for the quantification of alcohol in man include analysis in exhaled air and in blood. The screening and quantification of ethanol for road safety are performed in exhaled air. In hospitals, blood ethanol determination is routinely performed by enzymatic method, but the rule for forensic samples is gas chromatography.
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Jean-Pierre Goullé, Michel Guerbet. Éthanol : pharmacocinétique, métabolisme et méthodes analytiques. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises, Elsevier Masson, 2015, 73 (5), pp.313-322. ⟨10.1016/j.pharma.2015.03.003⟩. ⟨hal-02504754⟩



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