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Gelées tardives et viticulture en basse et moyenne vallée de la Loire (France). Approche géoclimatique d’un aléa météorologique majeur pour la vigne

Abstract : Night-time clear and calm weather conditions cause a highly contrasting fine-scale spatial temperature distribution, locally depending on topographic features, type of soil and land cover. The combination of meteorological and geographical features with plant phenology points out the strong sensitivity of spring phenology to the occurrence of late frosts. Spring frosts can have serious impacts on plant growth and can penalize economic sectors depending on fruit and wine production. Therefore, spring is the most monitored season. Strong frosts occurred in France in late April 2016, causing local and long-lasting (several consecutive hours) temperature records below -5°C in some lowland places. The same features occurred in spring 2017 and 2019. The study of the combined meteorological and topoclimatic features causing the spring frosts of 2016 in France was carried out in the lower and middle Loire Valley. This part of the Loire valley is one of the studied wine regions of the European project LIFE-ADVICLIM (ADaptation of VIticulture to CLIMate change: High resolution observations of adaptation scenarii). In this study, the following points are developed: the climate conditions in the geographical context of the lower and middle Loire Basin; the synoptic scale meteorology associated with late frosts and the peculiarity of spring frost compared to winter frost. The cold event of 27 April 2016 between Nantes and Orléans is analysed using a methodology that takes into account geography at fine scales. A comparative study is carried out between two nearby weather stations, representative of different local-scale geographical contexts: Romorantin, located on a valley floor with a sandy soil, and Lye, located on an open hilltop. The results show how the nested space-time scales must be taken into account to explain the contrasting temperature distribution: the synoptic scale allows frost risk triggering, while at local scale their effective impacts on the studied site to be highlighted, in terms of intensity and duration of the frost event.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 12, 2020 - 7:18:02 PM
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Olivier Cantat, Olivier Planchon., Hervé Quénol, Edwige Savouret, Benjamin Bois, et al.. Gelées tardives et viticulture en basse et moyenne vallée de la Loire (France). Approche géoclimatique d’un aléa météorologique majeur pour la vigne. Climatologie, Association internationale de climatologie, 2020, vol. 16, pp.91-128. ⟨hal-02446931⟩



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