A. E. Schlueter and M. W. Orth, Equine osteoarthritis: a brief review of the disease and its causes, Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology, vol.1, issue.4, pp.221-231, 2004.

L. R. Goodrich and A. J. Nixon, Medical treatment of osteoarthritis in the horse -a review, Veterinary Journal, vol.171, issue.1, pp.51-69, 2006.

C. W. Mcilwraith, D. D. Frisbie, and C. E. Kawcak, The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis, Bone & Joint Research, vol.1, issue.11, pp.297-309, 2012.

D. D. Frisbie, Future directions in treatment of joint disease in horses, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, vol.21, issue.3, pp.713-724, 2005.

R. M. Thiede, Y. Lu, and M. D. Markel, A review of the treatment methods for cartilage defects, Orthopaedics and Traumatology, vol.25, issue.4, pp.263-272, 2012.

R. Vézina-audette, A. Lavoie-lamoureux, J. Lavoie, and S. Laverty, Inflammatory stimuli differentially modulate the transcription of paracrine signaling molecules of equine bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol.21, pp.1116-1124, 2013.

D. D. Carrade and D. L. Borjesson, Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells in veterinary species, Comparative Medicine, vol.63, issue.3, pp.207-217, 2013.

T. L. Ursini, L. L. Amelse, and H. A. Elkhenany, Retrospective analysis of local injection site adverse reactions associated with 230 allogenic administrations of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in 164 horses, Equine Veterinary Journal, vol.51, issue.2, pp.198-205, 2019.

D. J. Ferris, D. D. Frisbie, and J. D. Kisiday, Clinical outcome after intra-articular administration of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in 33 horses with stifle injury, Veterinary Surgery, vol.43, pp.255-265, 2014.

L. V. Schnabel, L. A. Fortier, C. W. Mcilwraith, and K. M. Nobert, Therapeutic use of stem cells in horses: which type, how, and when?, Veterinary Journal, vol.197, issue.3, pp.570-577, 2013.

Y. Z. Paterson, N. Rash, E. R. Garvican, R. Paillot, and D. J. Guest, Equine mesenchymal stromal cells and embryoderived stem cells are immune privileged in vitro, Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol.5, issue.4, p.90, 2014.

S. Broeckx, M. Zimmerman, and S. Crocetti, Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study, PLoS One, vol.9, issue.1, p.85917, 2014.

D. J. Guest, M. R. Smith, and W. R. Allen, Monitoring the fate of autologous and allogeneic mesenchymal progenitor cells injected into the superficial digital flexor tendon of horses: preliminary study, Equine Veterinary Journal, vol.40, issue.2, pp.178-181, 2008.

D. D. Carrade, V. K. Affolter, and C. A. Outerbridge, Intradermal injections of equine allogeneic umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells are well tolerated and do not elicit immediate or delayed hypersensitivity reactions, Cytotherapy, vol.13, issue.10, pp.1180-1192, 2011.

N. Ardanaz, F. J. Vázquez, and A. Romero, Inflammatory response to the administration of mesenchymal stem cells in an equine experimental model: effect of autologous, and single and repeat doses of pooled allogeneic cells in healthy joints, BMC Veterinary Research, vol.12, issue.1, p.65, 2016.

D. D. Carrade, S. D. Owens, and L. D. Galuppo, Clinicopathologic findings following intra-articular injection of autologous and allogeneic placentally derived equine mesenchymal stem cells in horses, Cytotherapy, vol.13, issue.4, pp.419-430, 2011.

J. H. Pig, A. Ishihara, M. L. Wellman, D. S. Russell, and A. L. Bertone, Inflammatory effects of autologous, genetically modified autologous, allogeneic, and xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cells after intra-articular injection in horses, Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, vol.26, issue.6, pp.453-460, 2013.

L. V. Schnabel, L. M. Pezzanite, D. F. Antczak, M. J. Felippe, and L. A. Fortier, Equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells are heterogeneous in MHC class II expression and capable of inciting an immune response in vitro, Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol.5, issue.1, p.13, 2014.

L. M. Pezzanite, L. A. Fortier, and D. F. Antczak, Equine allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells elicit antibody responses in vivo, Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol.6, issue.1, p.54, 2015.

A. Joswig, A. Mitchell, and K. J. Cummings, Repeated intra-articular injection of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells causes an adverse response compared to autologous cells in the equine model, Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol.8, issue.1, p.42, 2017.

A. K. Berglund and L. V. Schnabel, Allogeneic major histocompatibility complex-mismatched equine bone marrowderived mesenchymal stem cells are targeted for death by cytotoxic anti-major histocompatibility complex antibodies, Equine Veterinary Journal, vol.49, issue.4, pp.539-544, 2017.

S. Y. Broeckx, J. H. Spaas, and K. Chiers, Equine allogeneic chondrogenic induced mesenchymal stem cells: a GCP target animal safety and biodistribution study, Research in Veterinary Science, vol.117, pp.246-254, 2018.

W. Y. Lee and B. Wang, Cartilage repair by mesenchymal stem cells: clinical trial update and perspectives, Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, vol.9, pp.76-88, 2017.

H. M. Lang, L. V. Schnabel, J. M. Cassano, and L. A. Fortier, Effect of needle diameter on the viability of equine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, Veterinary Surgery, vol.46, issue.5, pp.731-737, 2017.

, Stem Cells International

J. A. Orsini and T. J. Divers, Manual of Equine Emergencies: Treatment and Procedures, 2003.

T. Branly, L. Bertoni, and R. Contentin, Characterization and use of equine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in equine cartilage engineering. Study of their hyaline cartilage forming potential when cultured under hypoxia within a biomaterial in the presence of BMP-2 and TGF-ß1, Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol.13, issue.5, pp.611-630, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02186824

T. Branly, R. Contentin, and M. Desancé, Improvement of the chondrocyte-specific phenotype upon equine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation: influence of culture time, transforming growth factors and type I collagen siRNAs on the differentiation index, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol.19, issue.2, p.435, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02132045

S. Bartholomew, S. D. Owens, and G. L. Ferraro, Collection of equine cord blood and placental tissues in 40 thoroughbred mares, Equine Veterinary Journal, vol.41, issue.8, pp.724-728, 2009.

M. Desancé, R. Contentin, and L. Bertoni, Chondrogenic differentiation of defined equine mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood for use in cartilage repair therapy, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol.19, issue.2, p.537, 2018.

I. Bronzini, M. Patruno, I. Iacopetti, and T. Martinello, Influence of temperature, time and different media on mesenchymal stromal cells shipped for clinical application, Veterinary Journal, vol.194, issue.1, pp.121-123, 2012.

, American Association of Equine Practitioners AA of EP, Guide for Veterinary Service and Judging of Equestrian Events, AAEP, 1991.

X. Jing, L. Yang, and X. Duan, In vivo MR imaging tracking of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle labeled, engineered, autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells following intra-articular injection, Joint, Bone, Spine, vol.75, issue.4, pp.432-438, 2008.

A. L. Bertone, J. L. Palmer, and J. Jones, Synovial fluid cytokines and eicosanoids as markers of joint disease in horses, Veterinary Surgery, vol.30, issue.6, pp.528-538, 2001.

S. Christgau, P. Garnero, and C. Fledelius, Collagen type II C-telopeptide fragments as an index of cartilage degradation, Bone, vol.29, issue.3, pp.209-215, 2001.

S. L. Zeger and K. Liang, Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes, Biometrics, vol.42, issue.1, pp.121-130, 1986.

Y. Pers, L. Rackwitz, and R. Ferreira, Adipose mesenchymal stromal cell-based therapy for severe osteoarthritis of the knee: a phase I dose-escalation trial, Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol.5, issue.7, pp.847-856, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01834263

M. E. Duclos, O. Roualdes, R. Cararo, J. C. Rousseau, T. Roger et al., Significance of the serum CTX-II level in an osteoarthritis animal model: a 5-month longitudinal study, Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol.18, issue.11, pp.1467-1476, 2010.

E. Oliveira, R. C. Assunção-silva, and O. Ziv-polat, Influence of different ECM-like hydrogels on neurite outgrowth induced by adipose tissue-derived stem cells, Stem Cells International, vol.2017, 2017.

N. A. Silva, J. Moreira, and S. Ribeiro-samy, Modulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell secretome by ECM-like hydrogels, Biochimie, vol.95, issue.12, pp.2314-2319, 2013.

L. Cheng, K. Zhang, S. Wu, M. Cui, and T. Xu, Focus on mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: opportunities and challenges in cell-free therapy, Stem Cells International, vol.2017, 2017.

A. J. Morton, Diagnosis and treatment of septic arthritis, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, vol.21, issue.3, pp.627-649, 2005.

J. A. Hill, J. M. Cassano, M. B. Goodale, and L. A. Fortier, Antigenicity of mesenchymal stem cells in an inflamed joint environment, American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol.78, issue.7, pp.867-875, 2017.

A. Bertone, Noninfectious arthritis, Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse, pp.657-690, 2011.

L. Barrachina, A. R. Remacha, and A. Romero, Inflammation affects the viability and plasticity of equine mesenchymal stem cells: possible implications in intra-articular treatments, Journal of Veterinary Science, vol.18, issue.1, pp.39-49, 2017.

L. Boone, J. Mumaw, M. Thoresen, R. Gogal, and J. Peroni, Viability, proliferation, and chondrogenesis of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells after exposure to varying concentrations of allogeneic synovial fluid in vitro, Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, vol.62, pp.1-7, 2018.

A. J. Nauta and W. E. Fibbe, Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells, Blood, vol.110, issue.10, pp.3499-3506, 2007.

S. Ghannam, C. Bouffi, F. Djouad, C. Jorgensen, and D. Noël, Immunosuppression by mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms and clinical applications, Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol.1, issue.1, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01878105

D. D. Carrade, M. W. Lame, M. S. Kent, K. C. Clark, N. J. Walker et al., Comparative analysis of the immunomodulatory properties of equine adult-derived mesenchymal stem cells, Cell Medicine, vol.4, issue.1, pp.1-12, 2012.

J. M. Karp and G. S. Teo, Mesenchymal stem cell homing: the devil is in the details, Cell Stem Cell, vol.4, issue.3, pp.206-216, 2009.

T. Nishijima, The fine structure of the synovial membrane of the knee joint in rats with special reference to regional differences, Nihon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi, vol.55, issue.6, pp.601-613, 1981.

, Stem Cells International