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Non formal education to promote the right to education. Insight into Mali

Abstract : Educational structures of sub-Saharan Africa, inherited from colonization, have been an excessive institutionalization within a centralized state, with consequences for projects engaged in a quantitative challenge to the detriment of the quality policy of education. Recent estimates show the depression of a certain part of the population in absolute poverty. Formal education, dominant institutional system cannot meet the demand for education and the needs of populations: school marginalization is the case of Mali, a landlocked country in sub-Saharan Africa for which we decided to start our research several years ago. People excluded from school, adopt alternative and endogenous strategies in economic matters in the field of education. Questioning the development of non-formal education within the challenge of schooling for all along with the struggle against illiteracy, led us to focus our research on the characteristics of educational opportunities in Mali. By opting for a democratic school within the decentralized context, this country made a very clear choice, regarding the importance and role of communities in achieving a profound change and rebuilding its educational system, in an environment where the amount of basic educational communities exceeds the number of public structures.
The research that we want to present is to explore non-formal education, an elusive field, but appears to be a key player in sub-Saharan Africa’s education systems. This proposal aims to provide answers to the following question: What justifies the search for alternatives to formal education in Mali?
Henceforth, we will highlight the main factors of school exclusion through economic and social context of Mali. We also aim to understand policy choices and the various reforms taken by the Malian government in the history of education and more specifically from borrows ideas left by colonization. Finally, we will determine alternative strategies implemented in the context of decentralization, through the intervention of new forms of education acclaimed by the people and the various educational partners in Mali.
Non-formal education, an autonomous institutional alternative, is addressed through a survey using two types of actors: education experts as technical and financial partners as well as educational NGOs as operational participants of decentralised cooperation in Mali.
The Malian government cannot meet the growing demand for education and the needs of endogenous development, he must expand educational opportunities outside the school through the implementation of alternative methods in various interrelated areas that fit literacy needs and diversity of excluded populations. Formal education shows problems of access, quality, equity and discrimination. Communities adopt informal economic activities and non-formal education, because they are closer to their traditional cultural values and local learning.
The results demonstrate the need to build a dynamic partnership taking into account both participants. Paradoxically, where education requires long-term policies, education for all is considered in terms of urgency and intervenes in crisis situations.
Moreover, the non-formal education as a system apparently independent and alternative, decentralized, multi-sectorial approaches, cannot actually exist without the partnership and is therefore left in a certain “aid conditionality”.
Yet non-formal education, a complementary and inseparable actor of educational systems, is struggling to prevail since it fails to be considered an equal partner to formal education. Thus, non-formal education is at the heart of contemporary thought, as initiatives in this sector to promote and realize the effectiveness of the right to education.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 11, 2019 - 12:39:28 AM
Last modification on : Friday, March 11, 2022 - 3:26:25 AM

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Stéphanie Gasse. Non formal education to promote the right to education. Insight into Mali. 59th Annual Conference / Comparative and International Education Society : Ubuntu! Imagining a Humanist Education Globally (CIES 2015), CIES, Florida International University, Mar 2015, Washington DC, United States. ⟨hal-02357932⟩

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