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Fulminant Nocardiosis Due to a Multidrug-Resistant Isolate in a 12-Year-Old Immunocompetent Child

Abstract : Nocardiosis is a rare cause of infection that usually affects immunocompromised adult patients and might not be recognized by pediatricians. We report a fatal case of disseminated nocardiosis in a previously healthy child initially admitted for an abdominal mass with suspicion of a renal malignant tumor. The patient, originating from Mali without any medical history, displayed abdominal pain with progressive altered general status. Laboratory and imaging findings revealed lymphocytic meningitis and disseminated abscesses in the brain and the cerebellum and a large number of cystic lesions of the kidney. Despite being administered wide-spectrum antibiotics and antituberculous and antifungal therapies with an external ventricular drainage for intracranial hypertension, the patient died 6 days after his admission. Nocardia spp was cultured from a renal biopsy and the cerebrospinal fluid. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility were obtained later, revealing a multidrug-resistant isolate of the Nocardia elegans/aobensis/africana complex. This case reveals the difficulties of diagnosing nocardiosis, in particular in children not known to be immunocompromised, because we face multiple differential diagnoses and the importance of treating nocardiosis appropriately because of intrinsic resistance issues.
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Submitted on : Monday, August 5, 2019 - 3:54:32 PM
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Olivia Senard, Stéphane Blanot, Gregory G. Jouvion, Véronica Rodriguez-Nava, Olivier Lortholary, et al.. Fulminant Nocardiosis Due to a Multidrug-Resistant Isolate in a 12-Year-Old Immunocompetent Child. Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018, 141 (2), pp.e20163131. ⟨10.1542/peds.2016-3131⟩. ⟨hal-02263754⟩



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