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Three cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms localized in different-order veins act together for N remobilization and seed filling in Arabidopsis

Abstract : Glutamine synthetase (GS) is central for ammonium assimilation and consists of cytosolic (GS1) and chloroplastic (GS2) isoenzymes. During plant ageing, GS2 protein decreases due to chloroplast degradation, and GS1 activity increases to support glutamine biosynthesis and N remobilization from senescing leaves. The role of the different Arabidopsis GS1 isoforms in nitrogen remobilization was examined using 15N tracing experiments. Only the gln1;1-gln1; 2-gln1; 3 triple-mutation affecting the three GLN1;1, GLN1;2, and GLN1; 3 genes significantly reduced N remobilization, total seed yield, individual seed weight, harvest index, and vegetative biomass. The triple-mutant accumulated a large amount of ammonium that could not be assimilated by GS1. Alternative ammonium assimilation through asparagine biosynthesis was increased and was related to higher ASN2 asparagine synthetase transcript levels. The GS2 transcript, protein, and activity levels were also increased to compensate for the lack of GS1-related glutamine biosynthesis. Localization of the different GLN1 genes showed that they were all expressed in the phloem companion cells but in veins of different order. Our results demonstrate that glutamine biosynthesis for N-remobilization occurs in veins of all orders (major and minor) in leaves, it is mainly catalysed by the three major GS1 isoforms (GLN1; 1, GLN1; 2, and GLN1; 3), and it is alternatively supported by AS2 in the veins and GS2 in the mesophyll cells.
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Michaël Moison, Anne Marmagne, Sylvie Dinant, Fabienne Soulay, Marianne Azzopardi, et al.. Three cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms localized in different-order veins act together for N remobilization and seed filling in Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018, 69 (18), pp.4379-4393. ⟨10.1093/jxb/ery217⟩. ⟨hal-02184353⟩

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