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A Correlation between the Ultimate Shear Stress and the Thickness Affected by Intermetallic Compounds in Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy-Stainless Steel Joints

Abstract : In this work, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was applied to join a stainless steel 316L and an aluminum alloy 5083. Ranges of rotation and translation speeds of the tool were used to obtain welding samples with different heat input coefficients. Depending on the process parameters, the heat generated by FSW creates thin layers of Al-rich InterMetallic Compound (IMC) mainly composed of FeAl3, identified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Traces of Fe2Al5 were also depicted in some samples by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Monotonous tensile tests performed on the weld joint show the existence of a maximum mechanical resistance for a judicious choice of rotation and translation speeds. It can be linked to an affected zone of average thickness of 15 mu m which encompass the presence of IMC and the chaotic mixing caused by plastic deformation in this area. A thickness of less than 15 mu m is not sufficient to ensure a good mechanical resistance of the joint. For a thickness higher than 15 mu m, IMC layers become more brittle and less adhesive due to high residual stresses which induces numerous cracks after cooling. This leads to a progressive decrease of the ultimate shear stress supported by the bond.
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Florent Picot, Antoine Gueydan, Mayerling Martinez, Florent Moisy, Eric Hug. A Correlation between the Ultimate Shear Stress and the Thickness Affected by Intermetallic Compounds in Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy-Stainless Steel Joints. Metals, MDPI, 2018, 8 (3), pp.179. ⟨10.3390/met8030179⟩. ⟨hal-02174417⟩

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