. Quesada, Inca Garcilaso (I, I, 15), I, 37

. Gautier,

. Assmann, Canon and Archive, pp.97-106

. Renan, L'oubli, et je dirai même l'erreur historique, sont un facteur essentiel de la création d'une nation.' 5. The principles of this process are outlined by Ricoeur, La mémoire, vol.891, pp.543-53

E. Dümmler, Quid Hinieldus cum Christo?, p.183

O. Anglo-saxon-england and S. Gautier,

C. Isager, Ailnothus

, All dates provided here are regnal dates (when they are known with some degree of certainty). Dates for the kings of the Danes are those of their Danish reign, and they are named in modern Danish

. Gelting, Two Early Twelfth-Century Views

V. Foerster and . Und-identität, , pp.91-93

A. Gertz, , pp.83-87

. Münster-swendsen, Educating, p.166

. Mortensen, Sanctified Beginnings

. Ibid, 257-60: the author applies the same phased model in the case of Hungary. For a comprehensive view over Northern Europe, see Gautier

. Gelting, Chronicon Roskildense

. Gelting, Two Early Twelth-Century Views, 54. 17. Assmann, Cultural Memory, especially chap. 1. 18. Lönnroth

F. Ireland, this vision is strongly defended by the 'non-nativist' school of study of vernacular Irish material: see for example McCone, Pagan Past, The Status of the 'Mythical' Past

, On Adam's work and its vision of Scandinavia and its past, see Scior, Das Eigene und das Fremde; Fraesdorff, Der barbarische Norden; and Goetz

R. Waitz, For an analysis of Rimbert's description of benevolent pagan rulers who welcome Christian missionaries, see Gautier, pp.201-206

. Schmeidler, Adam (I, 15), 31: 'christianum reddidit

. Schmeidler, Adam (I, 29), 35: 'ut christianitatem ipse susciperet, suisque omnibus, ut christiani fierent

N. I. Perels, Other passages where Adam visibly struggles with that idea are his chapter on the island of Sambia (that is, Old Prussia), and his half-hearted praise of the Sueones, Commentary by Gautier, issue.27, pp.474-80

A. (. Schmeidler, 53: 'reges, immo tyranni Danorum'; 'nobis hoc scire sufficiat omnes adhuc paganos fuisse'; 'tanta regnorum mutatione vel excursione barbarorum, vol.52

;. Schmeidler and . Holst, 59: 'inutile videtur eorum acta scrutari, qui non crediderunt'. 28. The inscription is DR 42 in the 'Scandinavia Runic-texts Database'. The bibliography on the Jelling site and rune-stones is huge. I address it in Gautier, The Late Viking-Age Royal Constructions, pp.539-585

. Schmeidler,

K. Dumville and A. Chronicle, , pp.1013-1042

R. John, . Anglo-saxon, and . England, , pp.152-155

. Tyler, Talking about History

E. Tyler and . In-europe, , p.57

K. Dumville, A. Chronicle, C. , and S. ,

S. Gautier, , pp.238-281

. Hobson, National-Ethnic Narratives, pp.274-280

E. Campbell, , vol.8

. Townend, Contextualizing, pp.160-161

. Heslop, Fathers and Sons

, This is Knud Danaast, pp.4-7

A. (. Schmeidler, Hardegon, filius Suein'; ibid. (I, 55), vol.52

. Randsborg, King's Jelling

, See the discussion of this episode in Bolton, Cnut the Great, pp.50-51

. Tyler, Talking about History", compares the Encomium and Dudo's De moribus. On Gurim, see Gautier, On Hasting, see Bouet, "Hasting". 43. van Houts, pp.458-68

. Mortensen, From Vernacular Interview to Latin Prose

A. Ehwald, , p.479

. Garrison, Quid Hinieldus cum Christo?

A. Schmeidler, , pp.61-63

. Ibid, 48: 'cum nobis stipulantibus numeraret atavos suos, vol.48

. Ibid, magnam huius libelli materiam'. On how Adam proceeded from (probably vernacular) interview to (Latin) written account, see Mortensen, From Vernacular Interview to Latin Prose, pp.198-207

. Ibid, Audivi autem ex ore veracissimi regis Danorum Suein'. 51. Ibid, I, 48), vol.48

. Ibid, , vol.21

. Ibid, Narravit nobis diu memorandus rex Danorum et qui omnes barbarorum gestas res in memoria tenuit, ac si scriptae essent, 54. Ibid, vol.II

. Ibid, , vol.26

, Audivi autem ex ore, vol.48

. Ibid, 199: 'verax et dulcissima narratio'. 58. Ibid. (I, 48), vol.54

. Ibid, As we saw, this 'Hardegon' is probably Gorm the Old

. Ibid, 48: 'virum populis amabilem propter iustitiam et sanctitatem suam, vol.48

, 56: 'crudelissimus, inquam, vermis'; ibid. (I, 59), 57: 'crudelissimum Worm

. Ibid, 95: 'et ipse paganus, christianis valde inimicus'. 63. Ibid, vol.II

. Ibid, Audivi ego a prudentissimo rege Danorum Hericum post susceptam christianitatem denuo relapsum ad paganismum. Quod vero cum Ottone tertio pugnaverit et victus est, ab aliis comperi; rex tacuit. 65. This is at least what appears in the narratives of Widukind of Corvey, The Poppo Legend, vol.II

A. Schmeidler, The Polish princess was ?wi?tos?awa, or Sigrið 'the Haughty' (stórráða), daughter of Duke Mieszko I, who later married Svend Forkbeard: she was the mother of Knud the Great, and probably Svend Estridsen's grandmother, 67. Ibid, vol.II, pp.27-30

, Tydeus is a character from Statius' Thebaid

A. Schmeidler, De cuius fine, cum istum pronepotem suum, qui nunc in Dania regnat, interrogare maluerium, velud alter Tideus crimen avi reticuit, me veor parricidium exaggerante: "Hoc est, vol.28, pp.87-95

. Dumville, Kingship, Genealogies and Regnal Lists

. Assmann, Canon and Archive, p.102

D. Dumville and S. Keynes, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle : A Collaborative Edition, vols. 3-8. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1983.

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M. Gertz and . Cl, Ailnoth of Canterbury: Gesta Swenomagni regis et filiorum eius et Passio gloriosissimi Canuti regis et martyris, Vitae Sanctorum Danorum, pp.1908-1912

, Epistolae Karolini aevi tomus IV, pp.257-690, 1925.

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I. M. Wood, Alban Gautier holds an agrégation and PhD; he is Professor of Medieval History at the University of Caen Normandie. His work is concerned with the history of England and Northern Europe in the early Middle Ages. More specifically, he works on the history of food, political history and relationships between pagans and Christians. He wrote several books, either scholarly or aimed at a wider readership: Le festin dans l'Angleterre anglosaxonne, rééd. poche 2013) and Alimentations médiévales, V e -XVI e siècle, pp.36-67, 1985.

. Remembering and . Pagan-kings,