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Développement et dépendance des systèmes portuaires d'un état fragile ancrés dans la mondialisation : l'exemple de Djibouti

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is a geohistorical and geopolitical analysis of the Djibouti port system in the light of the foreign capital inflows and their political, social-economic impacts in the country development. In thus it favours two levels, that of the port (the evolution of port functions) and that of the corridor (Djibouti - Ethiopia). Indeed, Djibouti, a strategic location since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, knows a renewed interest since the 2000s. The influx of foreign investments mainly from the emerging powers (Dubai, first of all then China) has transformed the transport infrastructure hence the country. A renewed interest that is not only economic since we witness a proliferation of military bases (American, Japanese, Chinese) that come imposing to the former French base inherited from colonisation shows the strategic role of Djibouti in the monitoring and securing of the maritime route by the major powers.This work is therefore in line with researches on the relationship ports-territories and the question of corridors. This thesis is articulated around three main axes: the circumstances of the development, emergence of the port of Djibouti and its particular relationship to the Ethiopian’s territory. Hence, the adoption, at first, of a geopolitical approach necessary to understand the situation of Djibouti, the circumstances of the founding of the city and the territory, and the role of the port. It analyses then the evolution and the dependence of port functions on the geopolitical situation in the face of various regional and global historical crises (statutory evolution of Eritrea, closure of the Suez Canal, regional conflicts) in order to show the link between port traffic(succession of growth and decay phases) and these events. The evolution of the port of Djibouti shows, on the one hand, a link of interdependence between the coastline and its continental hinterland, and on the other hand, a dependence of vicissitudes and geopolitical hazards but also external public actors or private. Finally, the interaction between the territory and the space traversed is also the subject of this study through the territorial dimension of the Djibouti-Ethiopia corridor. Therefore, it questions then the socio-economic and environmental impacts of the activities along the corridor but also their influence on the urban morphology of the capital, through the example of the peri-urban area of PK12.
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Ismaël Abdillahi Guirreh. Développement et dépendance des systèmes portuaires d'un état fragile ancrés dans la mondialisation : l'exemple de Djibouti. Géographie. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMLH11⟩. ⟨tel-03065829⟩

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